HONEY AND SUGAR
To substitute honey for sugar in recipes, reduce the liquid by 1/4 cup for each cup of honey used. In baked goods, also add 1/2 tsp. baking soda for each cup of honey used and bake approximately 25 degrees lower.
Honey that can crystallize stores better than honey that cannot since the high sugar concentration prevents fermentation and the growth of microorganisms. For honey to crystallize, the water content must be below 18%. Look for Grade A Pure honey.
If you buy honey in large containers such as five-gallon buckets, pour it into smaller containers to store. It will be easier to liquefy the honey after it crystallizes if it is in smaller containers. Glass jars are preferable to cans since the acid in the honey sometimes interacts with metal in the can and causes a black discoloration.
To liquefy honey, place the open container in a pan of warm water and heat (do not boil) until the honey is completely liquefied. Heating to high temperatures can cause undesirable flavor changes. Leaving any crystals in the honey will cause it to recrystallize faster. Allow to cool before replacing the lid.
|81% sugar (fructose and glucose)||99.5% sucrose (fructose bonded to glucose)|
|About 17-20% water||About 1% water|
|65 calories per tablespoon||45 calories per tablespoon|
|21 grams per tablespoon||12 grams per tablespoon|
|Nutritionally insignificant amounts of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C||Nutritionally insignificant amounts of iron and potassium|
|Will darken and flavor will become stronger after time||May start browning but has no taste change|
|Will eventually crystallize||Remains free from lumps if stored dry|
|Loses flavor and aroma with sustained air exposure|
|Acid content increases with time|
|Cost is about 4 to 6 times more than sugar||Cost is much less than honey|